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Byrne et al. From the original phylogeny, which encompassed most Cheracebus and Plecturocebus, proposing their use at the extant primate genera, we extracted a subtree containing only subgenus level, at most, for two reasons: haplorhines. In total, there were terminals, 56 catarrhines, 62 platyrrhines, and two tarsiids. We also mapped the character 1 The use of Callicebus with three subgenera Callicebus, evolution on a tree containing only the 62 platyrrhines.

Cheracebus, and Plecturocebus implies that the titi mon- The absence state 0 or presence state 1 Fig. In this case, the Sapajus sp. On the contrary, it may cause even more Callithrix geoffroyi 0 4 confusion as to whom the two genera are related to.

Category: Holographic Universe

Callithrix aurita 0 2 2 The continued use of Callicebus, a name attributed to the Callithrix penicillata 0 6 titi monkeys for more than a century, would promote Cebuella pygmaea 0 10 more stability, as the subgeneric name is not required to Leontopithecus caissara 0 2 appear in the species name. Leontopithecus chrysomelas 0 2 Leontopithecus rosalia 0 3 Mico humeralifer 0 3 Model of Character Evolution Mico humilis 0 3 Mico rondoni 0 4 Here, we use stochastic character mapping Huelsenbeck et al.

Mico saterei 0 3 to analyze the probabilities of transitions between the Saguinus weddelli weddelli 6 0 two character states along the tree, following a continuous- Saguinus imperator imperator 0 2 time Markov process. The Markov process allows more than Saguinus labiatus labiatus 4 1 one change on a branch, and branch length influences the Saguinus martinsi ochraceous 1 0 probability of character change.

This Bayesian approach ac- Saguinus midas 3 0 commodates uncertainty in character states by evaluating Saguinus mystax pileatus 1 0 character maps on trees sampled from the posterior probability Saguinus niger 1 0 distribution Bollback It is also present in basal catharrines, like From the simulated stochastic maps on the Haplorhini tree, a Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, Catopithecus browni, and mean of 9.

Of those, 2. Therefore, EEF pres- state 1 to 0, indicating more losses than gains. When only the ence was treated as the plesiomorphic condition in platyrrhine tree was considered, there were 7. The priori at the root of both clades. We simulated 2, stochastic The simulated data suggested a Brownian evolution, instead character maps, using the simmap function of the of a random phylogenetic structure Fig.

However, the differences were not statis- with weak phylogenetic signal.

Analysis was conducted tically significant. Among the three traits, dependence be- using the phylo. As Landry related the loss of EEF with fore- arm abduction in primates, another aim of this study Atelidae was to test whether the absence or presence of the EEF was correlated with other variables, namely the Absence of EEF is a synapomorphy of Atelidae Fig.

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The fossil atelids, Caipora bambuiorum, Cartelles Cebuella, and Mico Garber , the manipulative coimbrafilhoi, and Protopithecus brasiliensis, did not have an foraging behavior of Leontopithecus Rylands , EEF Halenar and Rosenberger For this esti- regarded as an atelid Rosenberger et al. This could indicate that Paralouatta is independent evolution between the two characters and not an atelid, that it has regained this character, or that the the one that allows for correlated evolution.

This anal- primitive condition in Atelidae was the presence of an EEF, ysis was carried out using the fitPagel function of at least variably. However, our mapping considers a low prob- phytools. In this sense, Kay classified Paralouatta as part of a stem Platyrrhini group, not related to the extant Platyrrhini families. Pie charts at the nodes indicate the posterior probabilities of each state present in its sister group, Callimico goeldii Table 1. In Saguinus imperator, Gebo, A.

We the structure. The estimated D value Horovitz and 1. The low correlation between locomotorial and foraging traits and the EEF recovered here 1. Regarding selective pressures related to the loss of the EEF, Landry hypothesized that the foramen was lost in ar- 1. Moloch Personatus Gregory was the first author to associate the loss of Callicebus species groups the EEF with brachiation, when speculating whether humans Fig. However, this trait was not significantly correlated with loss of EEF in our anal- Pitheciidae yses, so the absence of an entepicondylar foramen in the hu- meri of Atelidae may have been a byproduct of genetic drift.

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The fossil Cebupithecia sarmientoi had the EEF limb abduction reaches its extreme, as they spend a consider- Meldrum In Callicebus the presence of EEF varies. Nevertheless, the correlation Personatus and absent in the Moloch species groups. From between vertical clinging and loss of the EEF was the lowest published studies, we consider it present in the Torquatus among the ecological traits tested here. This is not surprising, and absent in the Donacophilus species groups Hershkovitz because many vertical-clinging lemurs retain the EEF.

There appears to which requires intense and precise forelimb movements be no correlation between the distal width of the humerus and Rylands Nevertheless, it is pressure, and even in this case the foramen has been lost due compelling to suggest that the loss of the EEF may be a do its association with the distal humeral width, not being the byproduct of the narrowing of the humeral distal trochlea, subject of selection per se Pigliucci and Kaplan Like, Leontopithecus, the Conclusion Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and some cursorial catarrhines e.

Leontopithecus where it may have been a byproduct of the Additionally, as the character mapping suggests, the narrowing of the distal humerus.

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If we consider the morphological being potentially useful for inferring systematic relation- phylogenies, however, Callimico is the first offshoot in the ships among extant and fossil New World monkeys. In this scenario, the Acknowledgements We are most grateful to Mario de Vivo, and to the EEF was lost in the common ancestor exclusive of the curators and staff of all visited collections.

Diogo B. Besides the presence of Machado, and Gustavo Burin provided fundamental advice on the char- EEF, Callimico has at least another four phenotypic traits from acter modeling. Two anonymous referees provided very useful comments and suggestions.

Holographic Universe – Passages

This work was supported by the Brazilian federal agen- independent systems that are plesiomorphic in Callitrichinae cy for support and evaluation of graduate education CAPES. Among tamarins, genus Saguinus, the absence of the EEF seems to be restricted to species of the large-bodied clade Appendix i. Examined Material The absence of the EEF in some species of Aotus and Callicebus, and its consistent presence in others, probably is The material is deposited in the following Brazilian col- caused by genetic drift, especially if we consider the ancient lections, listed by their acronyms: Escola Superior de intrageneric divergence in these two genera Perelman et al.

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Here, we present evidence that the loss of the EEF in , ; Ateles sp. Primates, Platyrrhini. Zool Scripta — Am J Phys Anthropol — BMC Bioinformatics 7, Front Zool. Alan R. Am Mus Novitates — CO;2 of the dwarf marmoset, Callibella humilis. CO;2 risk and threat types: a new measure of phylogenetic signal Meldrum DJ Postcranial adaptations and positional behavior in strength in binary traits. Conserv Biol — Am J Phys Anthropol — A phylogenetic analysis based on Nakatsukasa M Morphology of the humerus and femur in multiple morphological systems.

Cladistics — African mangabeys and guenons: functional adaptation and doi Band Science — PLoS Genet. Geiger: analysis of evolutionary diversification.