Guide Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century (Dover Fine Art, History of Art)

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Minimalism: Developed in the USA in the s, and typified by artworks composed of simple geometric shapes, minimalism extended the idea that art should have its own reality and not be an imitation of some other thing. The medium, or material from which it is made, and the form of the work is the reality. Paul Farley.

Dexter Dalwood and Nancy Ireson. Martin Hammer. Mark Rawlinson.

A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1

Martin Herbert. Michael Bracewell. Main menu additional Become a Member Shop. Art Term Modernism Modernism refers to a global movement in society and culture that from the early decades of the twentieth century sought a new alignment with the experience and values of modern industrial life. Twitter Facebook Email Pinterest. Related terms and concepts Left Right. Abstract art Abstract art is art that does not attempt to represent an accurate depiction of a visual reality but instead use Formalism Formalism is the study of art based solely on an analysis of its form — the way it is made Significant form Term coined by art critic Clive Bell in to describe the idea that the form of an artwork or Realism In its specific sense realism refers to a mid nineteenth century artistic movement characterised by subjects painted from everyday life Impressionism Impressionism developed in France in the nineteenth century and is based on the practice of painting out of doors and Post-impressionism Post-impressionism is a term which describes the changes in impressionism from about , the date of last Impressionist group show Cubism Cubism was a revolutionary new approach to representing reality invented in around —08 by artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.

Suprematism Name given by the Russian artist Kasimir Malevich to the abstract art he developed from characterised by basic geometric Constructivism Constructivism was a particularly austere branch of abstract art founded by Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko in Russia around De Stijl De Stijl was a circle of Dutch abstract artists who promoted a style of art based on a strict geometry Minimalism Minimalism is an extreme form of abstract art developed in the USA in the s and typified by artworks composed Postmodernism Postmodernism can be seen as a reaction against the ideas and values of modernism, as well as a description of Explore this term Left Right.

Tate Etc. Tate Papers. In particular, it contextualises allusions Something supernatural, this way comes: Magic and Modernity in British Art Michael Bracewell Micheal Bracewell discusses the pervading influence of folklore, mythology, mysticism and the occult in the development of modernism and surrealism Modernism at Tate.

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Tate Britain Exhibition. The other two sculptures, dated to the late twelfth identification of tin-relief ornaments and of red century, both represent the Virgin and Child hues derived from the lac insect Kerria lacca in Majesty and have traditionally been Kerr is notable. In addition, characterization attributed to the same workshop on stylistic of manufacturing practices common to the sty- grounds. The early provenance of the other that they are the products of a single workshop. Also known as the Autun Virgin and Child. Birch, paint, and glass, H.

France, Auvergne Haute-Loire , second half of the 12th century. Said to come from the abbey church of Lavaudieu. Poplar, paint, tin foil, and traces of parchment, H. Also known as the Montvianeix Vir- gin and Child. Said to come from the Chapel of Saint-Victor-Montvianeix.

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Walnut, paint, tin foil, and traces of linen, H. Also known as the Mor- gan Madonna. Walnut, paint, tin foil, and traces of linen and parchment, H. Pierpont Morgan, Pierpont Morgan. The technical study of European Romanesque Most of these works have suffered many losses, polychrome wood sculpture has developed especially to their polychromy. In fact, the considerably in the last several decades. Germany, Saint George in Frauenberg Rhineland ; and ca.

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Alder, paint, and silver leaf, H. In and Johannes Taubert and Fritz Buchenrieder focused on the relationship between sculptural form and painted surfaces, notably on the Forstenried Crucifix ca. Poplar and paint, Other features he reported include the absence of pigment mixtures, lay- ering of colors to obtain tonal nuances, the use of painted decorative patterns, and extensive rendering of shading and highlights through the application of contrasting colors.

For the period aspects of French Romanesque polychrome —, chalk with fossilized coccolith wood sculpture.

The importance of polychromy broader question of local versus imported to stone sculpture was highlighted by the manufacturing traditions, particularly in a extensive technical analyses performed in the detailed examination of the twelfth-century Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments His- Calvary Group in Urnes Stave Church. They demonstrated, for study argues that the sculpture was produced example, that the original polychromy of the locally, by native artists, but also highlights the monumental Coronation of the Virgin from the active exchange of materials and technical Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Senlis, dating to skills within Scandinavia and with the rest of the end of the twelfth century, enhanced the Europe.

Of particular interest is her comparison lished a monograph on the mid-twelfth- of the twelfth-century polychromy uncovered century Enthroned Virgin and Child R. There are, however, diverse scholarly for the flesh tones are comparable. Nonetheless, unexpected discover- lan Pyrenees about , were published in an ies such as the use of oil on twelfth-century exhibition catalogue in The corresponding hole in the torso measures approximately 1 cm in diameter and 3 cm in depth.

On the reverse of the sculp- ture, the carved drapery stops at the opening of two rectangular cavities roughed out with an adze and a chisel Figure 7. Such cavities are frequently seen on the back of medieval wooden sculptures, resulting from removal of the core of the log in order to minimize forma- tion of radial cracks. Each of these two cavities was originally closed off with a wooden board, now lost, fitted into rabbets cut along the edges ovoid shapes suggesting the roundness of her of the rectangular openings and secured with a shoulders Figure 8 , the tight folds on her fore- small, square-section iron nail in each corner.

On broader surfaces, fine tool through the seat of the throne. No evidence was suggest the sculpture was meant to be seen found for the use of gouges.

A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1

Tool marks, probably pro- Auvergne. Strips of parchment, of which only traces are still present, covered the joins to ensure a seamless surface. Detail with 3. The two sculptures are therefore dis- cussed together here to avoid repetition. Both were sculpted from European walnut Juglans regia , a wood favored in the south of France recess below the hips displays tool marks that and frequently identified in twelfth-century suggest the use of an ax, an adze, and chisels.

On both, parallel chisel marks, tightly six separate pieces of wood, with the head, spaced and less than 1 cm wide, as well as tool arms, and legs joined to the torso.

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At the top of the sternum, a small small chisel Figure These two cavities were started with an auger and squared off with a chisel. View of top showing are simply recessed into the solid wood of both mortise used to attach base and seat and secured with long wooden head. The hole measures dowels. The joinery consists of wooden columns and therefore no high back.

The similarly applied to cover a crack that had Montvianeix Virgin has a small, round wooden appeared before the application of the ground. For each sculpture, the torso and legs of both Figure Detail showing cushion, and base were carved in one piece. A single large dowel was used to attach the heads to their respective bodies Figure In both cases, two small rectangular pegs 4.

The lower columns, octagonal in section and including both a base and a capi- tal, are positioned to suggest that they support the connecting arches. In contrast, the Morgan ment with unidentified Madonna has a much larger, rectangular plug radiopaque flakes 4. To judge from the radiographs, the relatively deep trapezoidal recess does not contain any radiopaque materials and could very well be empty Figure The samples of original paint in the form of dis- Autun Virgin and Child displays only islands persed pigments were analyzed using polar- of paint, for the most part related to at least ized light microscopy PLM.

Paint flakes were four subsequent applications of polychromy. Although scanning electron microscopy-energy disper- the Montvianeix and Morgan Madonnas sive X-ray spectrometry SEM-EDS , Fourier exhibit significant passages of twelfth-century transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR , atten- paint, widespread losses reveal large areas of uated total reflection Fourier transform infra- bare wood. Reconstruction relatively simple color scheme, with only solid, of polychromy.

Gray fields contrasting colors setting apart the different represent areas where carved elements of the two figures Figure The sculpture has element is modern. Cross section layer of ultramarine thickness ca. Origi- was painted with a thick green glaze ca. The lac was identified based on the presence of laccaic acids, unique to the 1 body and eggs of the lac insect, Kerria lacca Kerr. The original paint contains vermilion particles in a lead white matrix. Analytical results indicate that the ratio of oil to pigment is even greater in the flesh tones than in other paint layers, although this may derive in part from oils absorbed from subsequent layers of overpaint.

The upper body in lead white matrix, both from first overpainting. Original magnifica- tion x lead white matrix with occasional particles of red lead Figure The skin tones appear nuanced from a very light whitish pink on the 4 5 sides to warmer pink tones on the chest. The perizonium in wisps on the shoulders.

Although The original blue perizonium, now obscured much of this decoration has been lost, rem- by red overpaint, was rendered with a layer of nants were identified as tin foil coated with an ultramarine over a pale blue preparation con- amber-colored oil-resin varnish. Cross section from the 2 perizonium: 1 lead white ground; 2 indigo 1 in lead white matrix; 3 ultramarine with col- orless mineral inclusions; 4 and 5 vermilion and De coloribus et artibus romanorum.

The the earlier two examples, and not only because blue bands decorated with fine yellow arcs of its elaborate decorative scheme, which were executed in ultramarine and orpiment, included stylized representations of semipre- respectively. A mixture of orpiment and indigo cious stones on the throne Figure Com- was used to paint the light green bands; the red plexity in terms of manufacture is demonstrated bands are vermilion, with a layer of orpiment by the superposition of paint layers, by the use applied on top for the borders.

Traces of paint of applied relief decorations, and by the pres- surrounding the knot seem to indicate a similar ence of three different formulations for red combination of red, light green, and blue bands. A fourth As indicated above, bands on the hips and a was used for the flesh tones. The Virgin is wearing a blue mantle painted with ultramarine in an egg medium, applied over a gray preparation containing lead white and carbon black. Recon- measuring approximately 1.

The book is a modern which are now lost Figure As on the Torso replacement. The upper of Christ, this decoration was created with tin columns do not survive. Detail of metal a golden tint. The color was created by applying a lac glaze over an opaque layer of red ocher, which contains both dolomite and calcite as accessory minerals Figure Here, it appears that precipitated lac was ground and used as a pigment, mixed with lead white Figure It is also studded with small tin-relief decorations in the form of ringed domes within squares 0. Measuring up to 1. The ground layer is particu- larly thick because sample was removed from recess.

Finally, the same bright Virgin and Child. Origi- in an oil-protein medium. The paint contains a drying back, enlivened with flecks of red vermilion , oil, possibly linseed. This same medium was orange a mixture of vermilion and orpiment , found in a discrete translucent pale yellow and scattered specks of yellow orpiment layer between the ground and the skin tones, Figures 32, This surface recalls red por- which likely served to prevent the ground layer phyry, a stone that was often used as a mark from absorbing the binding medium of the of imperial prestige but also venerated as a pink paint.