It has a certain life span.
It is read, and ages, hopefully with dignity. Yet there are occasions—happy ones to be sure—in which the author must remain tied to a book and assume the risk of transforming it into a sort of serial publication. In the case of this text, my incentive to update it is its continued utilization in introductory university courses, where, I am convinced, history must always have as its final destination the immediate present.
This book was first published in Spanish in In the second Spanish edition, published in , I added a chapter on the Menem years, without changing the rest of the text. This edition was then translated into English and Portuguese, increasing the incentives to revise it and bring it up to date. I have also added material to chapter 9, written a new epilogue, and updated the bibliography.
In revising this book, I am able to put into perspective, and with some critical distance, my own text. As can be seen in the preface to the Spanish edition, my interpretations were strongly colored by the events of and the democratic experience that began then. That edition revolved around the question of democracy and its tribulations.
At that time, in , I believed that the country had found the appropriate political course: institutional democracy, the rule of law, pluralism, and citizenship. This state-sanctioned terror had its roots in fascist ideology, tracing a history from the fascist movements of the interwar war years to the concentration camps.
The Argentine road to fascism began in the s and s and from then on continued to acquire many political and ideological reformulations and personifications, from Peronism to terrorist right-wing organizations in the s especially Tacuara and the Triple A to the last military dictatorship Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0.
A History of Argentina in the Twentieth Century
University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in. Not registered? Peron's charisma and his past record with respect to labor helped him maintain his working-class support. His wife succeeded him in office, but her administration was undermined by the economic collapse inflation was skyrocketing and GDP contracted , Peronist intra-party struggles, and growing acts of terrorism by insurgents such as the ERP and paramilitary movements. Economic policies were directed at restructuring wages and currency devaluations in order to attract foreign investment capital to Argentina.
Montoneros , led by Mario Firmenich , cautiously decided to go underground after Peron's death. This gave way to the last and arguably most violent de facto government in Argentina, the National Reorganization Process. The targets were students, militants, trade unionists, writers, journalists, artists and anyone suspected to be a left-wing activist , included Peronist guerrillas.
Argentina – A Modern History. By Jill Hedges – The Anglo Argentine Society
Serious economic problems, mounting charges of corruption, public discontent and, finally, the country's defeat by the United Kingdom in the Falklands War following Argentina's unsuccessful attempt to seize the Falkland Islands all combined to discredit the Argentine military regime. Under strong public pressure, the junta lifted bans on political parties and gradually restored basic political liberties. Most of the members of the Junta are currently in prison for crimes against humanity and genocide.
The Beagle conflict began to brew in the s, when Argentina began to claim that the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands in the Beagle Channel were rightfully hers.
Understanding Argentina’s Dirty War Through Memoir
On May 2, the court ruled that the islands and all adjacent formations belonged to Chile. See the Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration. On 25 January , the Argentina military junta led by General Jorge Videla declared the award fundamentally null and intensified their claim over the islands.
- Argentina: A Modern History.
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On October 30, , Argentines went to the polls to choose a president; vice-president; and national, provincial, and local officials in elections found by international observers to be fair and honest. He began a 6-year term of office on December 10, It would not be until June 's Supreme Court decision to overturn all amnesty laws that investigations could be started again. In and , large turnouts for mid-term elections demonstrated continued public support for a strong and vigorous democratic system.
The UCR-led government took steps to resolve some of the nation's most pressing problems, including accounting for those who disappeared during military rule, establishing civilian control of the armed forces , and consolidating democratic institutions. As President, Carlos Menem launched a major overhaul of Argentine domestic policy.
Large-scale structural reforms dramatically reversed the role of the state in Argentine economic life. A decisive leader pressing a controversial agenda, Menem was not reluctant to use the presidency's powers to issue "emergency" decrees formally Necessity and Urgency Decrees when the Congress was unable to reach consensus on his proposed reforms. Those powers were curtailed somewhat when the constitution was reformed in as a result of the so-called Pact of Olivos with the opposition Radical Party.
Piquetero movement rose. The election saw the emergence of the moderate-left FrePaSo political alliance. This alternative to the two traditional political parties in Argentina was particularly strong in Buenos Aires but lacked the national infrastructure of the Peronists and Radicals.
In an important development in Argentina's political life, all three major parties in the race espoused free market economic policies. Towards the end of , Argentina faced grave economic problems. The IMF pressed Argentina to service its external debt , effectively forcing Argentina to devalue the Argentine peso, which had been pegged to the U. The freezing of the bank accounts was informally named corralito. The overall economy declined drastically during December The resulting riots led to dozens of deaths.
Finally, on January 2, , the National Congress elected the Peronist Eduardo Duhalde , a losing candidate in the most recent presidential election, as. President Duhalde faced a country in turmoil. His administration had to deal with a wave of protests middle-class cacerolazos and unemployed piqueteros , and did so with a relatively tolerant policy, intending to minimize violence. As inflation became a serious issue and the effects of the crisis became apparent in the form of increased unemployment and poverty, Duhalde chose a moderate, low-profile economist, Roberto Lavagna , as his Minister of Economy.
The economic measures implemented brought inflation under control. President Kirchner took office on May 25, He reshuffled the leadership of the Armed Forces, overturned controversial amnesty laws that protected members of the dictatorship from prosecution, and kept Lavagna on as economy minister for most of his presidency. Kirchner's administration saw a strong economic rebound, [ citation needed ] and foreign debt restructuring. The general election took place in ten provinces in September and Kirchner's Front for Victory won in six provinces.
The press developed the term " presidential marriage " to make reference to both of them at once. The protest, which spread over days, was quickly politicized and marked an inflection point in her administration. On 22 November , Mauricio Macri won the presidency. Overcoming the former motorist Daniel Scioli , from the Front for Victory. Macri took over as president on the 10th of December of that same year.
His government changed direction from the previous era, moving back to neoliberal policies. President Macri was one of the political leaders identified in the scandalous Panama Papers where he was identified as having several offshore companies for which other leaders have used to evade taxes, though to the day he has not suffered any convictions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Indigenous peoples in Argentina Inca Empire. Colonial Argentina.
History of Argentina
Civil Wars. Rise of Argentine Republic. Post-WW II to National Reorganization Process. Return to democracy.